Thank you for coming on the walk on Monday. I really enjoyed walking with you and sharing all the information that we had researched about Clerkenwell together.
Here is some of the vocabulary that we went over at the end. I hope it helps! If there are any words that I have missed, please do add them to the Blog.
I look forward to seeing you all again.
Vocabulary Clerkenwell: A history of rebellion Walk – Monday 18 May 2012
Coal (noun): Coal is the black or very dark brown ‘rock’ that is found deep underground. Traditionally we have used it for fuel and to make fires. E.g. it was very cold so we lit a coal fire to keep ourselves warm.
A coal hole (noun): In the past, many houses had their coal (see above) delivered by a coalman who poured the coal into a hole outside their house. The coal went into the house’s cellar. Then the people in the house could collect the coal from their cellar. We saw some of these old coal holes on the pavement in Clerkenwell.
A rebellion (noun): When people do not agree with a government, a ruler or any other type of authority and refuse to obey, they might organise an action against them. This act (sometimes violent) against a government or a ruler, is called a rebellion.
To rebel (verb): When a person or people rise up against a government or ruler, often by using arms. E.g. On June 12th 1381, the peasants from Kent and Essex marched on London. They were rebelling against the unfair Poll Tax that required the same amount to be paid by the peasants as the very wealthy.
A rebel (noun): A person who rises up against a government, ruler or other type of authority, often as armed resistance. E.g. In 1381 the rebels marched on London. They broke open prisons, killed several lawyers in the Temple and destroyed the Strand Palace, the home of John of Gaunt who had created the Poll Tax.
Scaffolding (noun): This is a temporary structure that is outside of a building so that workers can either paint the building or repair it. It is usually made with metal poles and wooden planks.
A scaffold (noun): This is a wooden structure that was built to hang prisoners from. The scaffold was high so each prisoner had to climb steps onto it. Then they were hung.
A scaffolder (noun): A person who puts the scaffolding up outside a building.
To hang (someone) (verb): In the past prisoners were killed by hanging them. Note: we changed the spelling for the past participle when we talk about a person being ‘hanged’. If we hang a picture on the wall, we say ‘I hung the picture on the wall’. If we kill a person, we say ‘he was hanged’. We never say: ‘that picture was hanged’!
A noose (noun): This is the loop in the rope that is used when a person is hanged. It is the loop that the person’s head goes through before it is tightened around their neck.
A knot (noun): When two ends of string, rope, cotton (e.g. for sewing) are tied together, they make a knot.
A hangman’s knot (noun): A special knot that the hangman (the person who was in charge of the hangings) made in the rope that the prisoner was hanged from.
A circus (noun): A company of trained animals, clowns, acrobats who travel from one town to another to perform to the local communities.
A zoo (noun): A place where wild animals are kept – usually in cages or closed in areas. Often in a large area in a park so that the public can come to look at the animals.
Joseph Grimaldi (a person so a proper noun): Grimaldi was born in Clerkenwell in 1778. He was the person who created the image of a clown as we know it today – the big painted smile, the costume, the sadness behind the smile and audience participation.
Pitch-black (adjective): Very dark black or coal black (see above for ‘coal’). E.g. It was pitch-black in there. I couldn’t see a thing!
Blackout (noun): During the Second World War, people had to turn all their lights off and cover their windows with dark curtains during an air raid. Because everything was black, it’s called a ‘blackout’.
A cell (noun): a) When someone is in prison, they are locked up in a small room. This is called ‘a cell’.
b) When a scientist looks through a microscope at an object, they can see all the tiniest of parts that make up the object. These are called ‘cells’. [I’m not a scientist and can’t explain this one very well!!!]
A prison (noun): The building where people are held because they have committeed a crime.
A jail (noun): The same as prison
Gaol (noun): An old English word for prison. We don’t use this in our speech anymore, but you may see it written down if you visit museums or read certain books.
To participate (verb): When we become involved and actively take part in something, we participate. Joseph Grimaldi (see above) was the first clown to get the audience to participate. E.g. Members of the audience had to get up and hold objects for him or help to pour water from a bucket etc. E.g. On the walk through Clerkenwell last Monday, you participated by sharing the history that you had researched with the group.
First Aid (noun): When someone is sick or injured and someone rushes to them to help them, it is called ‘first aid’. For example, someone might help a person to breath or wrap something around a cut to stop the bleeding. They do this until full medical treatment is available (often, until an ambulance arrives).
Outrageous (adjective): When something is very bad or excessive. E.g. I think that the price of public transport in the UK is outrageous! E.g. I’m outraged at the cost of transport in London!
An outrage (noun): A very strong angry reaction to something. E.g. it is an outrage that the train companies charge us so much for a ticket!
A tower (noun): A tall, narrow building that either stands alone or on top of a building. E.g. We looked a tower on the Italian-style church in Exmouth Market.
A steeple (noun): This is the ‘tower’ on top of a church. Usually, in England our steeples are pointed in a triangle shape.
A playground (noun): This is an outdoor area provided for children to play. When there is a playground in a park or in a local neighbourhood, there are usually swings, slides and other structures for children to play on. In playgrounds in schools, they are often just concrete ground surrounded by the school and other buildings.
A slum (noun): An area that is very poor and overcrowded. The housing is extremely bad with damp, broken windows, doors and roofs. Often, many people share a room. Slums are usually smelly and dirty and very bad for people’s health.
A stretcher (noun): When someone is very ill or hurt and cannot get themselves to hospital, they are carried on a stretcher into the ambulance. It has two poles and a long piece of strong fabric (usually canvas) that holds the two poles together.
Ways of saying things in English:
What does that mean? What does slum mean?
What do you mean by ... ? What do you mean by slum? What do you mean by that?
2 ½ years: we say ‘two and a half years’ but it sounds like ‘two anna half years’!
4 oz (in weight) = four ounces (28grams)
1 lb (in weight) = one pound (pound in weight, not money) (roughly 1 ½ kilo)
Pounds and ounces – you will often see this in markets though officially, we use the metric system!